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Can my neck pain be linked to breathing?

Surely its automatic you say, I don’t have to think about how I breathe?

And for some our natural breath pattern does come easily, but others can develop abnormal patterns that can have a widespread effect on the rest of the muscular system and compromise effective gas exchange, which is so fundamental to the health of both body and mind.

In quiet breathing our main muscle of inspiration (breathing in) is our diaphragm, with a little help from our intercostal muscles between our ribs. As we inhale, the central tendon of the diaphragm pulls down, which decreases the pressure within the lungs and allows air to be drawn in. Expiration (breathing out) is a natural recoil of the connective tissue, with the diaphragm drawing back up and pushing air out. The rib cage should expand in a 360 degree fashion, with a little bit of movement in the upper chest. Think filling a balloon.

Once we require a little more effort we start to recruit accessory breathing muscles such as the scalenes and sternocleidomastoid around the neck and the pectoralis minor at the front of the shoulder. (See image 1). These muscles all attach on to the rib cage and help to increase our inspiration as we start to exercise or move harder. Our abdominal muscles (external and internal obliques, transverse abdominus and rectus abdominus) actively help with expiration, bringing the rib cage back down along with the intercostals and diaphragm. A small but troublesome muscle in the lower back called the quadratus lumborum helps to fix the 12th rib.

Image 1: diaphragm and accessory breathing muscles. All present on both sides.

As we work harder again our trapezius, pectoralis major, serratus anterior/posterior and latissimus dorsi also kick into action to help.

Altered breathing patterns are very common and can affect the efficiency of the respiratory system, which can lead to numerous common complaints including headaches, shoulder and neck pain, temporo-mandibular joint and rib cage pain to name a few. One type of altered breathing pattern is termed apical breathing.

Apical breathing refers to breathing primarily into the upper portions of the lungs and chest rather than using the diaphragm and lower ribs. The diaphragm struggles to work optimally in this pattern as it cannot descend effectively and the accessory muscles over work, putting them under increased strain leading to tension and hypertonicity. This can create chronic tension, referred pain from myofascial trigger points, restricted movement and joint pain.

You will see the shoulders and chest rise up and feel tension around the upper chest and neck, with little rib cage expansion as you breathe in. It is also difficult to get as much air in as you do not fill all the lobes of the lungs, leading to shallower, more frequent breathing.

Respiratory conditions such as COPD and asthma can cause these abnormal patterns but very often they are triggered by day to day contributors such as stress, anxiety, poor posture and rib cage stiffness. Soft tissue therapy is very effective to help restore natural tone in the accessory muscles and help realign the rib cage to allow optimal movement, but the golden ticket is to learn how to breathe well and use your diaphragm effectively to allow for lasting change.

In diaphragmatic breathing we want full 360 degree expansion of the ribs and a descending of the diaphragm as we breathe in. the abdomen will also expand. There will be some movement through the chest as we do not want fixation in any area, but it will not be the primary movement. The shoulders should stay relaxed throughout. This movement will automatically reverse for exhalation through elastic recoil and pressure changes.

Below are two techniques to practice diaphragmatic breathing. Try these little and often through the day to see if they can help with your symptoms. We have to retrain the nervous system out of some pretty ingrained habits over the course of your life which takes time so be patient, but it is definitely worth the effort to enjoy efficient and effortless breathing.

Practising these techniques can also be very effective for managing stress and anxiety by stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system and bringing your focus out of your thoughts. Pretty important skills in today’s hectic and fast paced environment.

1: lateral chest expansion
In sitting or lying. Place your hands on your rib cage and relax your shoulders away from your ears. Breathe in through the nose and focus on getting your hands to move apart, expanding out to the sides and opening the ribs like an accordion. Exhale through the mouth through a pursed lip right to the end of your breath. Aim for between 6-10 breaths regularly throughout the day.
Tip: ensure the shoulders stay relaxed through this movement

2: Shoulder activation
In sitting with hands on the arm of a chair or on your knees. As you breathe in through the nose, gently press your hands down on to your knees or the chair arms and release the pressure to exhale through the mouth to the end of your breath.
This technique fixes the shoulders which prevents excessive chest and shoulder movement, therefore you have to use the diaphragm and ribs.
Tip: make sure you are not slouching to do this technique. Sit up tall and keep the rib cage and pelvis aligned to create space for the ribs and diaphragm to move.

Chaitow et al (2014). Recognizing and treating breathing disorders. Churchill
Images courtesy of Physiotec.

Could your foot be causing your knee pain?

The importance of hip strength and lower limb control in knee pain is well documented and researched. Many cases of knee pain have been successfully resolved by strengthening up these key areas and improving control, balance and proprioception to improve lower limb mechanics.

But sometimes this approach just doesn’t work despite valiant efforts from both therapist and client on their recovery.

So what if the problem isn’t lying above at the hips but below at the ankle and foot?   What if a lack of mobility in one area is causing compensations up through the body?

How our feet and ankles move is vital to how our knees move on top of them and for our entire kinetic chain, though can often get forgotten during assessment.

Active 1st MTP extension

1st MTP

The first place to assess is the movement of the first metatarso-phalangeal joint (1st MTP). Extension of this joint is essential to optimize the windlass mechanism during gait¹. Extending this joint shortens the plantar tissue on the sole of the foot, helping to create an arch and a rigid lever to push off from in the propulsive phase of gait (toe off).  A minimum of 60 to 65° ² of  1st MTP extension is necessary for normal gait.

If we don’t or can’t move well at this joint the body will compensate a way round it, by changing how the foot moves through the gait cycle to allow us to continue propelling forward. This could look like a foot that rotates outwards, favours the 2-5 toes to push off, or perhaps a leg that swings round in an abductory pattern or twists out of the toe off phase,  all good strategies for avoiding the 1st MTP!

A lack of movement at this joint affects the ability of the foot to re-supinate from a pronated foot position into toe off phase which has a big effect on muscle loading.

Toe off phase

Just some of the knock on effects up the kinetic chain if the foot cannot re-supinate well mean that the calf muscles (Gastrocnemius/Soleus) cannot  work through full range,  Tibialis posterior may remain under excessive load and be unable to contract well, the knee may not reach terminal extension,meaning the main knee stabilising muscles (quadriceps) cannot work through full range. The hip extensors (glutes and hamstrings) cannot work effectively to fully extend the hip. The leg may also stay internally rotated throughout the gait cycle, changing the way the knee joint is loaded and predisposing the patient to patello-femoral joint issues and medial knee loading. All these factors can impact the knee joint.

Ankle joint

The second key area to assess is ankle range of movement. I have written a blog about this previously looking at the potential compensation strategies we can employ to counteract a lack of available dorsiflexion in the ankle (This is the movement of the knee travelling towards the toes in gait).  We need approximately 1o° dorsiflexion³ in the ankle for a normal walking pattern, and more to ascend stairs, run etc. A lack of movement here  can increase forces through the knee as the body propels itself forward, especially in activities such as squatting and running. This can be caused by a number of issues but often is either a joint restriction at the talocrural joint (ankle joint) or chronic tightness through the calf muscles.

Ankle dorsiflexion

Calf complex

It is very valuable to assess for chronic tightness of both the calf and hamstring muscles  as this can prevent the knee from being able to fully straighten, again increasing load through the knee joint as it remains in constant flexion and the knee extensor muscles are unable to fully extend. This tightness could be caused either by a foot or a hip compensation or in some cases both!

In order for muscles and joints to work optimally they need to work through full range. Restoring this ability is a key part of a treatment programme.

If you find issues at the foot and ankle complex, spend a little time re-educating good movement patterns here to create a lasting effect up the chain.

Gait and movement analysis is incredibly effective  at picking up sometimes subtle movement patterns that are difficult to see in static and couch based assessment and can give a different and valuable perspective on how the body works in motion.

For more information please get in contact. www.ellynashat.co.uk

#gaitanalysis #anatomyinmotion #movementisthekey


Brukner and Khan: Clinical Sports Medicine 4th Ed 2012

The Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical Therapy 1984 :Vol 5 No. 5.  William Boissenault: The Influence of Hallux Extension on the Foot During Ambulation

Loudin Janice: The Clinical Orthopedic Assessment Guide 1998

A common cause of ankle pain

Medial Ankle pain: Tibialis posterior dysfunction


Tibialis posterior is a very important muscle of the foot and ankle complex, especially in relation to gait (the way we walk). It is very important in controlling and stabilising our foot and ankle on the inside when we walk/run/jump and gives vital support to the arch of our foot.

[For the gait geeks it works eccentrically to decelerate eversion of the rear foot in strike phase, provides support to the foot and arch in stance phase then contracts to help supinate the rear foot and form part of our rigid lever to push off in propulsion phase].


It attaches to the proximal posterior shafts of the tibia and fibula (shin bones) and runs down the back of the length of the shin bones, travelling under the medial malleolus (inside ankle bone) and inserting into the navicular, bases of all cuneiforms, cuboid and bases of 2-4th metatarsals (bones of the foot).¹

Causes of dysfunction:

If the muscle/tendon is constantly under increased load due to poor foot mechanics then dysfunction and overload can occur to the tendon. This will often come on gradually and may be triggered and aggravated by increased walking or running or a sudden change in activity. Poor footwear can also be a trigger, e.g. ballet shoes or flip flops, especially if worn for a long time in one go when not used to them. Tightness of the lower leg muscles, especially gastrocnemius and the peroneal muscles can contribute to the dysfunction, affecting the muscle balance of the lower leg which in turn affects foot movement and position.
It can also get injured due to trauma during sports/activities though this blog will focus on the more non traumatic injury.


It will commonly present as an achy pain just under the medial (inside) ankle bone, and may flare with an increase in activity, especially prolonged walking, running or jumping. Pain may occur when rising up on to the toes, especially after a few reps as the foot tires.
Pain may also be present on the outside of the foot/ ankle complex if the poor positioning of the foot is quite pronounced into pronation and rear foot eversion, as the bones may create an impingement on the outside of the foot. (See image).


The aggravating factor must be removed initially, so if this is an increase in a certain activity i.e. increased running, then this needs to be modified to remove excess stress on the tendon.
If the cause of dysfunction/overload is due to poor foot mechanics, this needs to be addressed in order to allow the tendon to recover. The foot will often (though not always) be overpronated, with a rearfoot eversion as in the image. Temporary insoles may be useful in the early stages depending on severity to help improve the foot position and offload an inflamed tendon.
A programme to re-educate the foot and get it moving better is also extremely beneficial. This will create a lasting change and ensure the muscles are able to lengthen and contract as they should. Specific Anatomy in Motion techniques to optimise how the foot moves during gait are very effective for this.
Soft tissue work and stretches can also help lengthen the calf muscles and peroneal muscles as part of a combined treatment.


Gradual increased loading of the tendon is then required to get it back to full strength. A graded rehabilitation programme from your health professional should allow you to resume your normal activities pain free, but be aware that tendon rehabilitation can be a slow process and can take anything from 12 weeks to 3-4 months² depending on severity and compliance.
As with any injury we have to consider the whole body, and address any issues that may be affecting poor movement patterns. Hip strength and  lower limb control will be particularly important in this case and should be included in any good rehab programme.

Although a common cause of medial ankle pain, tibialis posterior dysfunction can usually be rectified with a good rehabilitation programme working to optimise foot mechanics, improve strength and control of the lower limb and regain normal muscle balance of the foot and ankle. For more information please get in contact. www.ellynashat.co.uk

A.Biel: The Trail Guide to the Body 3rd Edition
Tendinopathy – rehab progression – part 1: Tom Goom 2013

#Anatomy in Motion #Rehabilitation #Sports Injury Therapy

The movement of climbing

Climbing represents ultimate movement training for me. It utilises all of our primal movement patterns in a flowing continuous journey across natures gift of rock.

Our primal movement patterns are considered the fundamental movements required to survive. Without these our ancestors would have limited chance of survival, before we all sat behind desks and started ordering takeaways!

These primal patterns consist of:

Gait (walking, jogging, sprinting).
squatting (Chek 2003)

Depending on the type of climbing route all of these movements may be utilised in a variety of ways. Even more so on mountaineering routes that wander through a variety of terrain and changing landscapes. The climber may shift from a pushing mantel move to a high foot and rock over (lunge pattern) in a second, quickly followed by a crimping sequence (pulling)that requires a twist and squat to progress to the next move. What better way to practice and improve our fundamental movements than immersed in the elements, with ever changing challenges and surprises.

Climbing is also about mass management. How can I keep myself in balance whilst moving forwards and upwards on ever decreasing hand and foot holds. Optimal core strength and stability really comes into play here to help keep one’s centre of gravity where it needs to be, and to hold positions that buy time to work out the next move. But more than static stability we need dynamic stability as the body is never still, ever. We don’t need to train static planks for minutes on end to improve our core stability, we need to be working dynamically whilst integrating our inner core unit. (Transverse abdominus, multifidus, diaphragm, pelvic floor musculature). and outer sling systems.  A good example in a gym environment may be cable work  or my personal favourites Pilates and TRX  training.

Flexibility is an important component in good climbing technique. The ability to reach that foothold that is just a little further away can really help to push the boundaries and make those reaching big moves whilst keeping control. Disciplines such as Yoga are perfect for maximising these skills, whilst also working to integrate mind and body  focus and breathing.

Precision of hand and foot placements can make or break a difficult move, requiring good neuro-muscular control, grip strength and attention to detail. The smallest crystal can be your winning hold but only in one specific direction! The are many climbing specific tools available to hone these skills such as fingerboards.

Climbing requires excellent shoulder stability if we are to remain injury free. Good scapulo-thoracic strength gives us  a stable base for the shoulder to work from and prevents non optimal movement of the shoulder when pulling hard on holds. The best climbers will often climb with a ‘feet first’ approach, focusing on optimal foot placement rather than pure shoulder strength to move efficiently and conserve power for the moves that really need it.

The mind is perhaps the most important part of our bodies for climbing outdoors. It  is a sport that requires constant thinking and decision making, and a confidence that this is the right move and the next hold will be there when you pull through. If we lose  focus or suddenly realise the precarious position we are in it can all slide downhill very quickly with a very real risk of injury.

This for many is the hardest thing to master. We can work on strength, stability and flexibility.  We can push and pull and work multi directionally through all planes of movement on the ground. Yet keeping control of the mind and not letting it win when things get tough is a constant challenge.

But there is just something magical about climbing outside, with the feeling of rock under your hand, moving in every which way we were designed to move  and mastering the sometimes unconquerable devil that is the mind.


Chek Institute: (2003) Primal Movement Patterns: A NeuroDevelopment Approach to Conditioning.

The Benefits of Pilates

Pilates is gaining in popularity every day, and for good reason. It is a brilliant way to enhance strength, balance, co-ordination and  flexibility without building muscle bulk and is invaluable for injury prevention and rehabilitation, which is why I am training to become a Stott Pilates Intructor. Take a look at how it can help us in more detail below.

Muscular endurance and strength
The Pilates repertoire has a focus on building muscular strength and endurance whilst not building bulk. This creates strong muscles, long lean muscular definition, and provides the integral strength to perform sustained activities without losing core and hip control. There is a strong focus on core stability, hip stability and scapular stabilisation in all exercises and emphasis is on working from the core out.

Flexibility is paramount to allow us to move freely and make the most of our bodies. The Pilates method works to increase flexibility under control. It works with eccentric (lengthening under load) exercises to encourage lengthening of muscle groups and promotes movement in all three planes of movement to mobilise and train our muscles three dimensionally.

We require good balance in all of our everyday activities, from walking, bending over and turning, to high level activities such as dancing  and athletics. Pilates helps focus our attention to be able to recruit the appropriate muscles to improve our balance and stability, improving our neuromuscular control. This then translates into our every day life, giving us confidence to move freely and is especially important as we get older, with falls being one of the most prevalent causes of injury in the older generation.

Starting from the core (our main stabilising muscles of pelvic floor, transverse abdominus, multifidus) and working out, the exercises challenge co-ordination skills, teaching increasingly challenging patterns of movement whilst maintaining full control and alignment. The helps to build neural control of the body.

Pilates encourages working with the breath during exercises which has a number of physiological and physical benefits and helps increase focus and concentration on the exercise at hand. Often the exhalation is paired with the ‘effort’ part of the exercise to increase intra abdominal stability and core activation, with the ‘recovery’ on the inhale. Working with the breath helps to relieve muscular tension of the upper chest muscles, which is a common pattern in today’s society. Breathing deep into the lungs and allowing three dimensional breathing encourages a better exchange of oxygen and CO2 in the lungs .

Pilates has a strong focus on alignment and posture, always aiming for optimal alignment during activities to ensure proper muscular engagement.  Working in this way heightens our awareness of our posture and highlights areas of weakness or overuse that  may be being perpetuated by our work or play habits. Working with a qualified teacher in a small group can really help  with this as it allows hands on adjustment and cueing to help achieve good alignment and an understanding to the client of where they should be, providing  proprioceptive feedback.

Injury prevention
Incorporating the above skills into our sporting activities has a positive impact on control and stability and is therefore great  for injury prevention.  Working in a controlled and focused way through the muscle groups helps to identify areas of weakness or overuse in the body and increases our body awareness. This can prevent overuse injuries occurring due to poor muscular strength and control. Working on flexibility also helps with injury prevention, ensuring we have optimal range through our joints to allow free movement.

As a result of pain or dysfunction in the back our deep spinal stabilising muscles can become inhibited, meaning they fail to provide intersegmental stability required for optimal spine health.  Long term this can create over use of larger mobilising muscles, creating muscular imbalance, and means the spine is not adequately stabilised at a segmental level.
This can perpetuate back pain even after the initial injury phase has passed, and can lead to fear of movement, which in itself can be a causative effect of long term back pain.

As discussed Pilates focuses on activation of our deep core muscles to perform controlled movements of the body, building strength and stamina within these muscles and increasing neuromuscular efficiency and recruitment. Carefully selected and executed exercises from the Pilates repertoire effectively targets these muscles and improves automatic recruitment. We need to be able to use these muscles in an anticipatory way, so they automatically fire just before movement, giving us a strong base of support to move from.

Being guided by a qualified teacher can give you confidence to move and disperse fears that may have built up through prolonged periods of pain.

Pilates is also excellent for rehabilitation of injury caused by lack of pelvic stability which is very prominent and is a common precursor to lower limb injury.

I combine my skills as sports and remedial massage therapist with Pilates to offer a complete package of care, looking at the body holistically to find solutions to pain and dysfunction and providing long term results.

I run 1-1 and small group Pilates sessions from various locations in Bristol. Like my facebook page https://www.facebook.com/elly.nashat/ to get information on venues and times as they come online.


Squat mechanics

Here is a useful article from Physio Answers on the best and worst squat positions and the effect on the lumbar spine. Take home messages are

  1. Make sure the spine remains neutral during squatting, do not allow spinal flexion at the bottom of the squat.
  2. Spinal bracing helps to increase intra-abdominal pressure therefore better protecting the spine under load and preventing shear forces
  3. ‘Each individual will most likely have an ideal squat technique based on their goals and individual differences in boney structure, injury history and mobility.’ We are all different and may not be suited to every exercise. Find methods that work for your body type and shape.

Though I am not one for heavy weight lifting, preferring body weight training as strength work, it is useful to be aware of the difference in stresses for those that do.

Article: http://www.physioanswers.com/2016/02/are-deep-loaded-squats-bad-for-lower.html?m=1



Staring into a screen…

There is lots of information on workplace set up available, but I wanted to put the main points of consideration in one place for easy reference for my clients.

Staying in any position for a prolonged length of time is not good for our bodies and especially our muscles, tendons and ligaments.
Stuart McGill found that remaining in a sustained position of 20 mins or more of sustained or cyclical loading causes ‘creep’ which refers to the gradual overloading and lengthening of soft tissue structures.
[Creep: a physical property of materials that results in progressive deformation when a constant load is applied over time; it allows soft tissues to tolerate applied loads by lengthening. (1)]
‘McGill and Brown, (2) showed that after 20 mins of creep followed by 20 min of rest, muscle activity recovered only 50% of its pre-creep magnitude’. Suggesting muscle activity is reduced with sustained loading and these forces are transmitted to the ligaments, discs and joint capsules of the spine. This can have a negative effect on the spine.

Below is a check list of important factors to consider at your workstation.

  1. Forward head posture – By far the most problematic issue caused by peering into a computer for 8 hours+ a day. We allow our head and neck to crane forward whilst concentrating, causing excessive strain on our upper neck and shoulder muscles and the muscles at the front of our neck. The average weight of a human head is 5kg (12lb), and this weight is increased as we take the head further away from its base of support, the body. According to Kapandji “For every inch of Forward Head Posture, it can increase the weight of the head on the spine by an additional 10 pounds.” Forward head posture looks something like this picture below.  Now look around the office and see if you can spot any colleagues that might be guilty of this, there is normally quite a few. Making sure your chair is in a good position and being conscious of your head position can greatly reduce neck and shoulder pain. We want our ears in line with our shoulders if looking from the side.Forward head posture
  2. Screen position – Your eyes should be along an imaginary line about 2/3 inches below the top of the screen. Make sure you are not tilting the head down or up to look at the screen, both of which can cause neck pain. You can change screen height by adding books underneath the monitor if your screen is not adjustable or raising your chair height. Have your screen directly in front of you, not off to one side unless you only use it periodically, you want your body to be facing the workstation set up, not twisting round to work. Make sure your screen is at least an arms length away from your body.
  3. Arm position – Keep your elbows by your waist, not outstretched and this is particularly important for your mouse arm which will tend to wander as we use it. Think right angles from shoulder to elbow and elbow to keyboard, nice straight alignment and keep your arms relaxed.
  4. Hand position – we need to make sure our wrists remain in a neutral position when typing, not resting on the table which causes extension of the wrist, or bent steeply over into flexion. Use a wrist rest to prevent this happening and increase your comfort. Particularly important for avoiding Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) injury.keyboard_posture
  5. Desk height – If your desk is too high it will change the angle of your arms when typing/using the mouse which could affect hand positioning and increase the chance of RSI type injuries. If the desk is too low it may encourage you to lean forward towards your screen and increase Forward Head Posture. Make sure you can comfortably get your chair under your desk and don’t feel stretched or cramped up.
  6. Chair size – Your chair size is important, especially for the short or tall. Often the width of a chair’s seat may be too wide for those with short legs, which encourages them to perch on the edge of the chair. This can cause increased hip flexion if sustained through the day. For tall people a small chair may make the knees sit higher than the hips, again causing increased hip flexion. Make sure you can reach the ground/footstool whilst sitting back properly in the chair.
  7. Hips and knees – Your knees should rest slightly lower than your hips, this helps to avoid sitting in excessive hip flexion which can aggravate the low back.
  8. Lumbar support – Having some support at the back of the chair in the hollow of our back helps to prevent us slumping as we get tired through the day. Ideally this will be an adjustable part of the chair, but there are cushions you can buy independently to provide the same support in the lower back. Also if we slump back we have to bring our shoulders forward to counter act this, which adds to Forward Head Posture.
  9. Feet – A foot stool can help stop us crossing our legs at the desk, which can cause pelvic rotation if we habitually cross the same one leg over the other. Making sure you can rest both feet comfortably on the rest will prevent this happening. Especially useful if you are shorter in height.
  10. Regular breaks – I cannot stress the importance of taking regular breaks, break the cycle of remaining in one position for an extended time. Every hour at least you should step away from the screen and do something else for a few minutes to allow your body time to undo the ‘creep’ that has occurred.
  11. Laptops – Laptops provide a whole host of additional problems as your keyboard, mouse pad and screen and all cramped up into a tiny box in front of you. If you have to work on a lap top, get a separate keyboard and mouse and create a proper workspace as often as you can using the above guidelines. Try not to work with the laptop on your lap looking down into the screen, and put it on a table at the correct height for you.

Workplace set up


Don’t be afraid to ask your employers for a workplace assessment, they are required to provide this for you and could save you a whole host of pain and discomfort.

1: Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. (2003)
2:McGill SM, Brown S. Creep response of the lumbar spine to prolonged full flexion. Clin Biomech.1992;7:43–46. [PubMed]
3: Kapandji, Physiology of Joints, Vol. 3.

Ankle dorsiflexion compensations

One  important factor to look at when looking at gait is whether the client has enough dorsi flexion to easily move through the gait cycle without compensating elsewhere.

As always if we cannot make a movement at one joint this movement will be made elsewhere up the chain to enable us to keep moving.  This could cause excess movement in other areas within the hip/knee/low back right up to the shoulder.

We ideally have >10 Degrees of ankle dorsiflexion during gait, and there are a number of common compensation patterns that are seen when ankle rocker (dorsiflexion during gait) is lacking.

  1. Internal rotation of the foot – this allows us to roll over the lateral edge of the foot to compensate for reduced dorsiflexion. The knee and hip may also follow the internal rotation, putting adverse stresses on these joints. The knee may drift laterally into the frontal plane as the weight transfers over the foot.
  2. External rotation – Often accompanied by a big toe bunion or callusing in the 1st MTP joint area. With this compensation we move forward by externally rotating the ankle, dropping the arch and advancing through the medial edge of the foot to get our range.
  3. Early heel lift – to get around the lack of dorsiflexion we can cheat by going vertically, engaging through posterior calf muscles and transferring the weight over the foot into forefoot rocker early, these clients will have a bouncy look to their gait.
  4. Knee hyperextension – With this compensation, the client will hyperextend the knee to drive the pelvis forward transferring body mass over the joint. Often coupled with an anterior tilt of the pelvis.
  5. Mid foot pronation – This method of compensation sees a drop of the navicular area to gain extra range. Often coupled with external rotation strategies described above though not always.
  6. Supination – A rigid foot that does not allow for pronation, may see the hips drifting out to the side , going ‘round’ rather than ‘through’ the range.

It is worth looking at available dorsiflexion when assessing for any ankle/knee/hip and low back pathology as a potential contributor of symptoms.  Considerations for causes of reduced dorsiflexion can be posterior calf tightness, tibio-talar joint restriction, weak anterior, lateral or medial calf muscles. All can be treated by manual therapy and rehabilitation techniques to achieve greater freedom of movement and range.

References: The Gait Guys


1st rib dysfunction

Clients may present with either one sided or bilateral shoulder pain that does not seem to resolve with postural re-education and soft tissue work. Often they will report a dull, aching feeling in the shoulder region that is persistent .One factor that may be contributing to this is 1st rib dysfunction.

Clients with poor posture, respiratory conditions, or those who suffer with anxiety and nervousness often have a faulty breathing pattern and overuse their accessory breathing muscles rather than including their abdomen and expanding their lower rib cage.

An ideal breathing pattern sees the abdomen expand, coupled with a lateral expansion of the lower ribs and a small rise in the upper chest. If a client tends to breathe into the upper chest as a preference with little or no abdominal involvement this may indicate a faulty breathing pattern.

Over time this can cause shortening of these accessory muscles which may lead the 1st rib to become elevated. The anterior and middle scalenes are often the most likely soft tissue restriction causing this elevation and the rib becomes ‘locked in inhalation’ (Chaitow 2014)

1st rib may also be implicated in conditions of thoracic outlet syndrome, causing a narrowing of the thoracic outlet when elevated, and would need to be assessed alongside other potential contributors.

The 1st rib will feel very tender to palpate and the surrounding muscle tissues of trapezius, scalenes and sternocleidomastoid will present as tight. Range of movement of the neck will likely be restricted. As the client inhales and exhales deeply an asymmetry may be felt between the two sides on palpation. Both may be locked however there will likely be a more affected side, which would be treated first.

Soft tissue work to address these structures along with muscle energy techniques to release the first rib are very effective at normalising this problem, and coupled with education on optimal breathing patterns can prevent re-occurrence. Poor sleeping positions which encourage shortening of the affected side will need to be changed. Good posture is also key to prevention especially in tasks which may encourage a classic ‘forward head posture’ and rounded shoulders such as computer work.

A full assessment and treatment by a qualified soft tissue therapist will identify and successfully resolve this common problem.

References: Chaitow L 2014: Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders

Supination of the foot

HRC-Supination-diagramOver supination of the foot

I have had a recent influx of clients who heavily supinate on one or both of their feet.

Supination is a tri-planar movement of the ankle which occurs during gait and consists of plantar flexion, adduction and inversion of the ankle joint. It is a natural part of the gait cycle, and the foot moves between pronation and supination to allow us to walk and run. However ‘over’ supination can cause problems, especially for runners and walkers. You will usually have quite high arches and place a lot of pressure on the outside edge of the foot in both standing and walking/running.

The pronation element of gait, which sees the foot roll inwards slightly during ‘foot flat’ phase allows forces to be absorbed by the ankle which is important for shock absorption. If you are an over supinator you will lack flexibility and spring within the medial arch of the foot, meaning this pronation movement cannot take place as effectively.

This can affect the lower limb in a multitude of ways as these forces are transferred straight up the leg rather than being absorbed by the foot and ankle, and potentially create an external rotation on the limb. This can increase the chance of shin splints, stress fractures and ankle sprains and the likely hood of soft tissue injuries such as calf strain, achilles problems and plantar fasciitis.

You may also lack dorsiflexion in the ankle, which is the ability to bring the top of the foot towards the shin, or more importantly, functionally this means you may lack range of movement in the ankle, increasing the chance of compensation patterns to occur elsewhere through the lower limb and hips.

You can sometimes tell whether you are an over supinator by the wear on your shoes. An uneven pattern of wear, on the outer edge of your trainer suggests that you load this area more heavily when standing and moving.

There are some great soft tissue and physical therapy techniques that can help improve this, focusing on addressing the tight structures contributing to the problem which will include the calf complex , tibialis anterior and the deep compartment muscles of tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus, which all work to plantar flex the foot and invert it, or bring it to towards the midline. Gentle mobilisation techniques can also be very beneficial in improving movement.

Whilst not as common as over pronation, which can be corrected with insoles, soft tissue work or/and orthotics, there is still lots that can be done to help correct ‘over’ supination and improve movement.